The U.S. Election Ladder: From Local to Federal.

Publication date: Friday November 24, 2023

The United States, with its complex federal structure, holds elections at multiple levels, ranging from city wards to the federal government. Each level plays a crucial role in democratic representation and governance. Understanding these different levels is essential to understanding how American democracy works.

Elections at the City Ward Level.

At the base of the electoral pyramid are the ward elections. These elections, which often receive less media coverage, are essential for the management of hyperlocal issues such as security, urban planning, or local public services. Ward councillors, elected in these elections, are the closest representatives of the citizens and respond directly to their daily concerns.

Municipal elections.

Municipal elections determine the composition of municipal councils and elect mayors. These elections are crucial because they directly affect the daily lives of citizens, with decisions on education, transport, local police, and social services. Mayors and councillors play a central role in the development and implementation of public policies at the local level.

County Elections.

At the county level, voters choose county supervisors, sheriffs, and judges. Counties in the United States manage functions such as law enforcement, prison management, road maintenance, and sometimes public health departments. County elections are therefore essential for security and local infrastructure.

District Elections.

District elections are primarily for representatives to the state legislature. These elections are important because state legislatures have considerable power over issues like education, health care, and taxes. School and judicial districts also elect their representatives to run public schools and local courts.

State Elections.

At the state level, voters vote for key positions such as governor, state senators and representatives, and state supreme court justices. These elections have a significant impact on state policy and legislation, influencing areas such as fiscal policy, natural resource management, and civil rights laws><.

Federal Election.

Finally, at the top of the electoral structure are the federal elections. These elections determine the president, members of Congress (Senate and House of Representatives), and sometimes include referendums on national policies. Federal elections are of paramount importance because they set the direction of the country as a whole, addressing national and international issues.

What Non-U.S. Citizens Don't Know.

Why a Sheriff Is Elected in the United States.

Role and Function of Sheriff.

The position of sheriff in the United States is unique in the law enforcement landscape. Unlike police chiefs, who are typically appointed by mayors or city councils, sheriffs are elected by the citizens of the county. The sheriff is responsible for law enforcement at the county level, which includes managing the county jail, providing patrol services, conducting criminal investigations, and sometimes providing court services, such as securing courts and serving warrants><.

Education and Qualifications.

To be eligible for election as sheriff, a candidate must generally meet specific criteria, which can vary from state to state. These criteria often include significant experience in law enforcement, some level of education (sometimes a college degree), and U.S. citizenship. While many sheriffs have experience with policing or other forms of law enforcement, this is not a universal requirement. Their training may include aspects specific to the role of sheriff, such as prison management, rural patrol operations, and administrative management.

Reasons for the Election.

The election of sheriffs is a tradition rooted in the desire for accountability and responsiveness to local communities. As elected officers, sheriffs are directly accountable to their county constituents, which, in theory, incentivizes them to be more responsive to the needs and concerns of those communities. This approach aims to ensure that law enforcement policies and practices reflect the values and priorities of the community they serve.

Why Judges Are Elected in the United States.

Role and Responsibilities of Judges.

In the United States, judges play a crucial role in the justice system. They are responsible for overseeing trials, interpreting laws, and ensuring that justice is administered fairly. Depending on the state and court level, judges may be involved in civil, criminal, family, or other types of cases.

Election Process.

In many U.S. states, judges are elected rather than appointed. Judicial elections can be non-partisan, where candidates' political affiliations are not officially recognized, or partisan, where candidates are associated with a political party. These elections are intended to strengthen judicial independence by avoiding appointments based on political affiliations or special interests.

Training and Qualifications.

Judges must possess extensive legal training, typically including a law degree and significant experience as a lawyer. They must also demonstrate integrity, impartiality and a deep understanding of the law.

Reasons for the Election.

The election of judges is intended to maintain the independence of the judiciary and ensure that judges are accountable to the public. The idea is that elected judges will be better able to represent the values and norms of the community. However, this system is the subject of debate, with some criticising the risk of politicisation of the judiciary and the pressure of electoral campaigns on judicial impartiality.

Les Autorités Américaines Prolongent le Visa E-2 de 24 à 48 Mois

Date de publication : Jeudi 16 Novembre 2023

A New Chapter for French Entrepreneurs in the United States: The E-2 Visa Extension

A Historic Agreement between France and the United States

On May 23, 2023, a groundbreaking agreement between France and the United States was announced, increasing the duration of the E-2 visa from 25 months (2 years) to 48 months (4 years). Christopher Weissberg, the France North American Congressman, shared the exciting news during his visit to New York in April, expressing confidence in the negotiations and describing the agreement as a win-win situation.

A Response to the 2019 Reduction

This extension is particularly noteworthy, as it follows the August 2019 decision by the U.S. Department of State to reduce the duration of the E-2 visa for French citizens from 60 months (5 years) to just 15 months (1 year and 3 months). In November 2019, this duration was adjusted to 25 months to align with the treatment accorded to U.S. citizens by the French government. This new extension therefore reflects a positive evolution in bilateral relations, marking an important milestone in the common history of the two nations.

Opportunities and Future Prospects

The announcement of this expansion has sparked strong interest among French entrepreneurs and investors, paving the way for new opportunities for those looking to do business in the U.S. or already established there. This change will make it more convenient for individuals, families and businesses, while promoting economic growth and mutual understanding. This auspicious moment is an opportunity to seize for French entrepreneurs and investors considering applying for an E-2 visa.