The United States, a global economic superpower, is renowned for its dynamic and innovative labor market. This country, where the American dream attracts millions of people in search of better opportunities, is distinguished by the diversity and richness of its sectors of activity. However, despite this abundance of opportunities, some sectors find themselves in a situation of tension where the supply of jobs significantly exceeds the demand. These "jobs in shortage" are not only indicators of the country's economic health and innovation dynamics, but also strong signals for professionals around the world seeking rewarding career opportunities.
In this context, occupations in short supply in the United States are a window into current and future trends in the labor market. They reveal the booming industries, the skills in demand, and the challenges U.S. employers face in finding skilled talent. Understanding these trends is crucial not only for job seekers, but also for policymakers, educators, and companies looking to adapt their strategies to the changing needs of the market. Looking at these in-demand occupations, one can also glimpse the U.S. immigration opportunities and visa policies, designed to attract international talent in these key areas.
The analysis of jobs in short supply in the United States is therefore a very instructive exercise. It helps us better understand not only the U.S. economy but also global labor trends. It is within this framework that we will explore the main employment sectors where demand far exceeds supply, starting with the computer and software sector.

U.S. Computer and Software Systems.

The U.S. IT and software industry is a true pillar of the global digital economy. Valued at hundreds of billions of dollars, this field is a driver of technological innovation and is home to big-name companies, ranging from giants like Microsoft and Google to innovative startups like Slack and Zoom. The demand for highly skilled professionals in this sector is extraordinary and growing.
In this industry, roles like software developers, often sought after by companies such as Adobe and Oracle, are crucial. System architects, playing a key role in companies like Cisco and IBM, are essential for structuring computer networks. Software engineers, especially at companies like Apple and Amazon, are at the heart of product design and development. Data analysts, who are in high demand at giants like Facebook and Twitter, are turning masses of data into actionable insights.
Statistically, the sector has a remarkable number of job vacancies. For example, there were about 375,000 vacancies in this field in the United States, with average entry-level salaries in the sector of $47,060, which can average as high as $112,000. These figures illustrate not only the high demand but also the opportunities for rewarding, well-paying careers. The demand for IT and software skills is accelerating, suggesting continued growth.
IT and software professionals, working in a variety of contexts ranging from IT security at NortonLifeLock to artificial intelligence at Tesla or OpenAI, are not content to simply meet today's market needs. They are shaping the digital future, playing a key role in global digital transformation, and propelling advancements in fields ranging from robotics to automation.
This dynamic and ever-changing sector is therefore fertile ground for professionals looking to influence the technological future and pursue rewarding careers.

U.S. Engineering.

The engineering sector in the United States is extremely large and diverse, playing a crucial role in many aspects of the economy. It covers a wide range of disciplines, from civil engineering responsible for major infrastructure projects like the Golden Gate Bridge, to essential electrical engineering at companies like General Electric. Mechanical engineering, another pillar, is at the heart of the operations of companies like Boeing and Ford.
The engineering industry, with a value of USD 360.1 billion in 2023, is an engine of economic growth. The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) forecasts a 4% increase in employment between 2021 and 2031, reflecting the growing demand for these skills. With 91,010 vacancies and an average annual income of USD 91,300, engineering is not only lucrative but also essential for innovation and infrastructure.
Engineers play a key role in the design, construction and maintenance of critical infrastructure. For example, civil engineers are involved in public transportation projects like the New York City subway, while renewable energy engineers at companies like Tesla contribute to solutions for climate change. Aerospace engineers at SpaceX are at the forefront of space exploration, pushing the boundaries of technology.
This importance of engineering to maintaining U.S. economic competitiveness is undeniable, as is its critical role in solving global challenges such as sustainable development and the fight against climate change.

U.S. Accounting and Finance.

The accounting and finance industry is a critical pillar of the U.S. economy, playing a critical role in the business world. From multinationals like J.P. Morgan Chase and Goldman Sachs to dynamic Silicon Valley startups, all depend on skilled financial professionals to manage their finances.
Demand for financial analysts, crucial for assessing investment risks and opportunities, is expected to increase by 11% by 2026, reflecting substantial growth in the sector. These professionals, often employed by investment banks and consulting firms like McKinsey & Company, play a key role in financial decision-making.
The accounting and finance field is expected to offer approximately 136,400 new job opportunities annually between 2021 and 2031. Accountants, essential in companies of all sizes, from Deloitte to small local businesses, can expect salaries ranging from $30,204 to $83,544 on average per year.
This sector is not limited to account and investment management; It also includes roles such as internal auditors, financial planners, and economists. These professionals help shape companies' economic and financial strategy, playing a key role in U.S. economic growth and stability.

U.S. Human Resource Management.

Human resource (HR) management is a vital and growing industry in the United States, playing an indispensable role in business success. From large corporations like Google and Microsoft to innovative SMBs, all depend on skilled HR professionals to manage their human capital. Currently, the HR industry has more than 273,000 job vacancies, with an expected increase of 70,000 additional positions by 2030, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics. This growing need for skilled HR professionals is a testament to the rapidly changing job market. Specific HR roles, such as HR analysts, play a crucial role in interpreting employee data trends for companies like IBM or Salesforce. HR managers, who may work at companies like Hilton or PepsiCo, are responsible for overseeing HR operations and developing strategies to attract and retain talent. HR consultants, often employed by consulting firms like Deloitte or Accenture, help companies navigate the complexity of employment laws and optimize their HR practices.
These HR professionals are not limited to administrative management; They also play a key role in developing company culture, employee training and development, and managing organizational change. Salaries for these positions range from $60,942 to $76,974, reflecting the importance and value of these roles.
HR management is essential to help businesses adapt to an ever-changing job market. This sector doesn't just cater to today's business needs; It is also instrumental in preparing organizations for the future, making this area crucial to the U.S. economy as a whole.

U.S. Hospitality.

The U.S. hospitality sector, including hotels, restaurants, and tourism services, is a critical segment of the economy. The value of this market, which was around USD 3953 billion in 2021, is projected to reach nearly USD 6716.3 billion by 2028, highlighting its rapid expansion.
Employment growth of 18% is expected from 2021 to 2031 in this sector. With nearly 451,000 vacancies currently, the demand for skilled professionals is clear. Job opportunities vary from positions at renowned hotel chains like Marriott or Hilton, to roles in high-profile dining establishments like those run by celebrity chefs in Las Vegas or New York.
The sector offers a range of careers, from hotel managers, who are responsible for the smooth running and profitability of establishments, to chefs, who are the creative heart of restaurants. Hospitality professionals, including receptionists and service staff, play a crucial role in customer satisfaction.
With annual revenues ranging from USD 27,316 to USD 75,000, the hospitality industry offers lucrative and diverse careers. Opportunities in this area are not limited to traditional positions; They also include roles in marketing, event management, and even technology, such as the development of online booking systems.
The hospitality industry in the U.S. doesn't just cater to the needs of tourists; It is a driver of the local and national economy, contributing significantly to employment and economic growth.

U.S. Sales & Marketing.

The U.S. sales and marketing industry is fertile ground for innovation and adaptation to new technologies and trends. With more than 179,000 vacancies, it's clear that the demand for professionals in this field is high.
Sales and marketing professionals play a crucial role in businesses of all sizes, from tech giants like Apple and Microsoft, to small, local businesses. Their responsibilities may include managing customer relationships, designing marketing strategies, and analyzing market data.
The average annual income in this sector is USD 41,130, with significant variations by role and experience. For example, a marketing manager in a large company may earn much more than average, while an entry-level sales rep may be in the lower bracket
This industry is not limited to traditional advertising; it also encompasses burgeoning fields like digital marketing, SEO, and social media. Digital marketers at Google or Facebook, for example, can focus on optimizing online advertising campaigns and analyzing user data to effectively target audiences.
With ever-changing consumption patterns and the increasing digitization of the market, the sales and marketing sector remains a critical area for business growth and success in the United States.

U.S. Healthcare Industry.

The U.S. healthcare sector is a rapidly expanding field encompassing a wide range of services and professions. The expected growth of at least 16% by 2030 is a testament to the steady increase in demand in this sector.
Doctors, for example, are at the heart of the healthcare system, working in renowned hospitals like the Mayo Clinic or Johns Hopkins Hospital. Nurse practitioners, essential in facilities like the Cleveland Clinic, play a key role in patient care. Physiotherapists and dentists are also in high demand, working in a variety of settings, ranging from private practices to large medical centers.
The average annual income of healthcare professionals, which ranges from $43,215 to $64,917, reflects the value and importance of these occupations in the U.S. economy. This sector is not limited to direct patient care; it also includes research and development at pharmaceutical companies like Pfizer and Moderna, as well as medical device manufacturing by companies like Medtronic.
Expanding this sector is critical not only to meeting the health needs of the U.S. population, but also to maintaining the U.S.'s position as a leader in health and medical innovation.

STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics) sector in the United States.

The STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Math) sector in the United States is booming. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, an increase of more than 10% in jobs in this field is expected by 2031, highlighting its growing importance in the modern economy. Currently, about 8.6 million people work in this sector, accounting for 6.2% of total employment in the United States.
The demand for STEM skills reflects the need for innovation and technological development in various sectors. For example, scientists at biotech companies like Biogen or Amgen are conducting groundbreaking research. Engineers at SpaceX or Boeing work on cutting-edge aerospace technologies. Information technology experts at Google or Apple develop software and applications that change the way we live and work.
The average annual income of a STEM professional is $98,340, illustrating the value these skills bring to the economy. This sector is not limited to traditional roles; It also encompasses emerging fields such as artificial intelligence, robotics, and renewable energy.
The growth of the STEM sector is crucial to maintaining U.S. competitiveness and innovation on the world stage.

U.S. Education.

Education, especially for high school teachers, is a vital sector in the United States. A 5% increase in job opportunities is expected from 2021 to 2031, with states like Florida, Illinois and Arizona showing the highest demand
Currently, there are about 80,000 vacancies for teachers in the United States, and salaries range from $32,700 to $54,000. These figures highlight the critical importance of education in American society. Teachers play a key role in developing the skills and knowledge of future citizens and professionals. They work in public and private schools, high schools, and specialized institutions.
Teachers in the U.S. don't just impart academic knowledge; They play a fundamental role in the personal and social development of students. In addition to traditional subjects like math, science, and languages, they are often involved in civic and health education programs, which are essential for preparing students for adult life.
Teaching in the United States is therefore much more than just a profession; It is a vocation that shapes the future of society.

U.S. Nursing.

Nursing in the U.S. is experiencing exceptional demand, especially for specialty roles such as nurse practitioners, nurse anesthetists, and nurse midwives. The Bureau of Labor Statistics predicts a 40% increase in job opportunities in these fields by 2031, with the creation of about 112,700 additional jobs.
These healthcare professionals play a vital role in the U.S. health care system. Nurse practitioners, often employed in clinics and hospitals, have expanded responsibilities that include prescribing medications and managing patient care. Nurse anesthetists, working in facilities like the Cleveland Clinic, play a crucial role in anesthesiology, while nurse midwives, often employed in hospitals and maternity clinics, specialize in prenatal and postnatal care.
The average annual income for these specialized occupations often exceeds $150,000, reflecting the high demand for these skills. Specialist nurses are essential to providing high-quality, specialized care in an ever-changing healthcare system.

Conclusion: Working in Sectors of Tension in the United States.

Benefits of Working in the United States:

Career Opportunities: In the U.S., sectors under pressure offer a multitude of career opportunities. Industries such as IT, healthcare, and engineering are growing, offering rewarding and evolving careers.
Attractive Salaries: Occupations in these sectors are often well-paid, with salaries significantly higher than the global average, especially in specialized fields such as nursing or engineering.
Innovative Environment: Working in the U.S. allows you to be at the forefront of innovation and technology, offering a unique professional experience.

Disadvantages and Challenges:

Cost of Living: In many regions, especially major metropolises, the cost of living can be high, which can mitigate the benefits of higher salaries.
Work/Life Balance: Depending on the industry and company, work-life balance can be difficult to maintain.

Reasons to Work in the United States:

Professional Development: The U.S. offers exceptional opportunities for growth and professional development.
Network & Opportunities: Working in the U.S. allows you to build an international professional network and access unique opportunities.

Administrative Difficulties for Non-Citizens:

Work Visas: Obtaining a work visa (such as the H-1B for skilled occupations) can be a complex and competitive process.
Certification and Recognition of Qualifications: In some fields, such as healthcare, foreign qualifications must be certified or recognized in the United States, which can be a lengthy process.

Procedures for Working in the United States:

  1. Obtaining a Work Visa: Identify the type of visa that corresponds to your situation (H-1B, L-1, O-1, etc.). The process usually involves a job offer from a U.S. company.
  2. Certification of Qualifications: For some trades, especially in healthcare and education, it may be necessary to have your professional qualifications recognized in the United States.
  3. Visa Application: The visa application is made at the U.S. embassy or consulate in your country. This involves the submission of documents and sometimes an interview.
  4. Moving Planning: If the visa is granted, plan your move to the United States, taking into account the logistical and legal aspects.
  5. U.S. Adaptation: Once there, there are cultural and professional adjustments to be made, including understanding the tax system and health insurance.

When applying for a position in a sector that is under pressure in the United States, there are several types of expenses to consider:
Visa Fee:

  • Visa Application Fee: Varies depending on the type of visa. For example, the H-1B visa costs around 460 USD.
  • Sponsorship and Attorney Fees: If you use the services of a lawyer for the visa application, the fees can vary greatly.

Professional Certification Fee:

  • For some professions, especially in healthcare, there may be costs associated with certifying qualifications.

Recommended Amount on Arrival:

  • Housing Deposit: Generally, the first and last month's rent are required.
  • Initial Living Costs: Include food, transportation, and other daily expenses. It is advisable to have at least 3-6 months of living expenses.

Expenses after arrival:

  • Housing: The cost varies greatly depending on the location.
  • Transportation: Buying or renting a vehicle, public transportation costs.
  • Health Insurance: Crucial in the U.S., can be expensive.
  • Taxes and Social Security: To be considered in the overall budget.

Planning for these expenses is crucial to ensure a smooth transition to a new job in the U.S.


For a family of three moving to Georgia, where the husband is applying for a job as a web developer, here is an estimate of the budget needed for the first 5 months:

1. H-1B Visa Application Fee:

  • Application fee: $460 USD. This amount is fixed and covers the cost of processing the visa.

2. Housing Deposit:

  • First and last month's rent: Estimated at $1,500 per month, totaling $3,000. This varies depending on the location and size of the dwelling.

3. Monthly Living Expenses:

  • Food, clothing, hobbies, etc. : Approximately $600 per month.
  • Electricity, water, and internet bills: Approximately $300 per month.
  • Transportation (gas, maintenance): Approximately $200 per month.
  • School for the child: Variable, but not included here.
  • Monthly total: Approximately $3,000.

4. Purchase of a Used Vehicle:

  • Average cost for a used car: $5,000.

5. Health Insurance:

  • Estimated cost for a family of three: $500 per month. It depends on the coverage chosen.

6. Professional Certification Fee:

  • Not applicable for a web developer, so 0 USD.


For a family of three moving to Georgia for a web development job, it is advisable to have an initial budget of around US$25,960 to cover the costs of the first five months. This budget considers basic costs such as housing, daily expenses, transportation, and health insurance, but does not cover unexpected expenses or school fees for the child. Careful financial planning is essential to ensure a smooth and stress-free transition.